Allegations of misconduct

A finding of research misconduct requires that:
a. There be a significant departure from accepted practices of the relevant research paper.
b. The misconduct be committed intentionally, or knowingly, or recklessly.
c. The allegation be proven by a preponderance of the evidence.
After proper Investigation, the Editor takes reasonably responsive measures when ethical
complaints have been presented concerning a submitted manuscript or published paper, in conjunction with the publisher. Such measures will generally include contacting the author of
the manuscript or paper and giving due consideration to the respective complaint or claims
made, but may also include further communications to the relevant institutions and research
bodies, depending on the misconduct seriousness.
Minor misconduct might be dealt with/without the need to consult more widely. In any event,
the author is given the opportunity to respond to any allegations.
Serious misconduct might require the application of one or more of the following measures:
 Informing the author or reviewer where there appears to be a misunderstanding or
misapplication of acceptable standards.
 Publication of a formal notice detailing the misconduct.
 A formal letter to the head of the author's or reviewer's department or funding agency.
 Formal retraction or withdrawal of a publication from the journal, in conjunction with
informing the head of the author or reviewer's department
 Imposition of a formal embargo on contributions from an individual for a defined